Lung Cancer Specialist in Mumbai
Lung Cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. It accounts for 2.21 million new cases and 127,070 deaths annually. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of cases in the world and 9.8% of deaths in both sexes. It is the commonest cancer in men as compared to women.
Lung Cancer is a type of cancer that forms in the lungs mostly due to smoking. It can also happen due to other external factors such as breathing toxic chemicals or secondhand smoke. Exposure to harmful substances in the air such as radon gas or asbestos and other carcinogens can also cause lung cancer.
The primary cause of lung cancer is exposure to carcinogens, substances that have the potential to cause cancer. The leading cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking, which is responsible for the majority of cases. However, there are other factors that can contribute to the development of lung cancer, including –
- Tobacco smoke – Smoking tobacco, whether through cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, is the most significant risk factor for lung cancer. The harmful chemicals present in tobacco smoke, including nicotine, tar, and various carcinogens, damage lung cells and increase the risk of cancer development.
2. Secondhand smoke – Inhaling the smoke emitted by others who are smoking, known as secondhand smoke or passive smoking, can also increase the risk of developing lung cancer.
3. Radon gas – Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can seep into homes and buildings from the ground. Prolonged exposure to high levels of radon gas increases the risk of lung cancer, particularly in individuals who also smoke.
4. Occupational exposure – Certain workplace environments can expose individuals to carcinogens that increase the risk of lung cancer. Examples include asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, coal products, and some industrial chemicals.
5. Air pollution – Prolonged exposure to outdoor air pollution, including pollutants such as particulate matter, chemicals, and industrial emissions, has been associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer.
6. Genetic predisposition – While rare, certain genetic mutations and inherited factors can increase the susceptibility to lung cancer. Individuals with a family history of lung cancer may have a higher risk.
7. Pre-existing lung conditions – Some pre-existing lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis, can increase the risk of developing lung cancer.
Lung cancer can have various symptoms, although some individuals may not experience any symptoms in the early stages of the disease. The symptoms can also vary depending on the type and stage of lung cancer. Here are some common symptoms associated with lung cancer –
- Persistent cough – A chronic cough that doesn’t go away or worsens over time is a common symptom of lung cancer. It may produce mucus or blood.
- Shortness of breath – Feeling breathless or experiencing difficulty in breathing, especially with exertion, can be an indication of lung cancer. This symptom may arise due to a blockage or narrowing of the airways or fluid accumulation in the lungs.
- Chest pain – Persistent chest pain, discomfort, or tightness can occur with lung cancer. The pain may be dull, sharp, or aching and can sometimes be felt in the shoulder or arm.
- Unexplained weight loss – Sudden and unexplained weight loss can be a symptom of various types of cancer, including lung cancer. Loss of appetite and wasting of body tissues can contribute to weight loss.
- Fatigue and weakness – Feeling excessively tired, weak, or lacking energy without any apparent cause can be a symptom of lung cancer.
- Hoarseness – If your voice becomes hoarse and persists for an extended period, it could be a symptom of lung cancer. This may occur when the tumor affects the nerves or structures in the chest.
- Recurrent respiratory infections – Frequent or recurring infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia could be a sign of an underlying lung condition, including lung cancer.
- Coughing up blood – Coughing up blood, also known as hemoptysis, can occur in lung cancer. The blood may appear in the sputum or phlegm and can range from small streaks to a significant amount.
- Bone pain or fractures – Advanced lung cancer may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the bones. This can lead to bone pain, fractures, or other skeletal problems.
These symptoms are not exclusive to lung cancer and can also be caused by other medical conditions. If you experience any persistent or concerning symptoms, it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.
Diagnosis and Tests
The diagnosis of lung cancer typically involves a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, imaging tests, and laboratory tests. Here are the common diagnostic procedures and tests used to detect and diagnose lung cancer –
1. Medical history and physical examination – The doctor will review your medical history, including any symptoms you’re experiencing, and ask about risk factors such as smoking history or exposure to carcinogens. They will also perform a physical examination to assess your overall health and look for signs of lung cancer or other abnormalities.
2. Imaging tests
- Chest X-ray – A simple and commonly used imaging test that can provide initial information about abnormalities in the lungs.
- Computed tomography (CT) scan – A more detailed imaging test that provides cross-sectional chest images. It helps to visualize the size, location, and spread of tumors.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – Used in some instances to get more detailed images of the lungs or nearby structures.
3. Sputum cytology – In this test, a sample of your sputum (phlegm) is collected and examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells. This test is more useful for central tumors that are near the airways.
4. Biopsy – A biopsy is the definitive diagnostic procedure for lung cancer. It involves obtaining a small tissue sample from the suspicious area to examine it under a microscope. There are different types of biopsies –
- Needle biopsy – A thin needle is inserted into the lung tissue to obtain a sample. It can be guided by CT scan or bronchoscopy.
- Bronchoscopy – A thin, flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the mouth or nose to visualize the airways and collect tissue samples for examination.
- Surgical biopsy – In some cases, a surgical procedure may be necessary to remove a larger tissue sample for examination.
5. Molecular testing – Molecular testing, including genetic testing and biomarker analysis, may be performed on the tissue sample to identify specific genetic mutations or biomarkers that can guide treatment decisions, such as targeted therapies or immunotherapy.
The treatment options for lung cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health, and individual preferences. Here are some common treatment modalities used for lung cancer –
- Surgery – This treatment is possible at an early stage of lung cancer. In this surgery, tumor cells are removed completely along with a small part of surrounding healthy tissue. This avoids the cancer cells to not return as there are no traces of cancer cells left behind in tissues.
- Radiation Therapy – It uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It is used before surgery to shrink tumors or after surgery to kill cancer cells left behind.
- Chemotherapy – In this therapy, patients are injected with antidrugs in veins that kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy also increases the prolonged life in older patients above 60 years of age. The effectiveness of chemotherapy can be increased if done in combination with radiation therapy.
- Targeted Therapy – It uses natural antibodies to attack foreign cells from bacteria or viruses. It is also combined with chemotherapy for effective treatment. Natural antibodies are also called “monoclonal antibodies” that specifically target the cancer cells on the surface.
- Immunotherapy – In this, the patient’s own immune system is used to fight cancer. It helps your body fight infections and other diseases.
- Proton Therapy – Proton Therapy uses protons instead of high-energy X-rays. It uses positively charged particles to destroy cancer cells.
Why Uhapo is the Best Provider for Lung Cancer Specialists in Mumbai?
Uhapo provides access to the best medical team of highly-qualified cancer doctors and specialists to treat cancer with care. Our organization is equipped with a network of the Best Lung Cancer Specialist in Mumbai who are skilled in various diagnostic techniques that include physical examinations, biopsies, imaging tests (such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans), and laboratory analysis for accurately diagnosing lung cancer among patients. Our Lung Cancer Specialists in Mumbai are expertized in determining the stage of cancer – which involves evaluating the extent of cancer spread for making treatment decisions and providing prognostic information about the likely course of the disease.
We can navigate you to the Best Lung Cancer Specialist in Mumbai – that are qualified to assess the individual needs of each patient by developing personalized treatment plans. They determine the overall factors of individual patients including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient’s overall health, and their treatment goals. The major treatment options considered by our top oncology doctors in Lung cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapies, or a combination of these modalities to cure the patients with the best treatment approaches.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) about Lung Cancer Specialist in Mumbai
It is important to do deep research to make informed decisions on your health care. The below faqs will guide you to gather more information for your necessary diagnosis and treatments. Also, it will help you in finding the best Lung cancer specialists in Mumbai to manage your condition well.
1. What are the different types of lung cancer?
Ans: There are majorly 2 types of lung cancer – Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
2. How is the stage of lung cancer determined?
Ans: The stage of lung cancer can be determined by the spread of cancer cells into the lymph nodes. Staging helps guide treatment decisions and predict prognosis.
3. Can lung cancer spread to other parts of the body?
Ans: Yes, lung cancer can spread to other parts of the body, a process known as metastasis. Lung cancer has the potential to spread both locally within the chest and to distant sites via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
4. Are there any clinical trials or experimental treatments for lung cancer?
Ans: Yes, there are numerous clinical trials and ongoing research efforts focused on developing new treatments and improving outcomes for lung cancer patients. These clinical trials aim to test innovative approaches, novel therapies, and combination treatments.
5. What type of surgery do you recommend for my lung cancer?
Ans: The type of surgery recommended for lung cancer directly depends on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the location and size of the tumor, and the overall health of the individual.
6. How often should follow-up appointments be scheduled after lung cancer treatment?
Ans: The frequency of follow-up appointments after lung cancer treatment can vary depending on individual circumstances and the recommendations of your healthcare team. In general, follow-up appointments are typically scheduled more frequently in the first few years after treatment and then spaced out over time.
7. Are there support groups or resources available for lung cancer patients and their families?
Ans: Yes, there are various support groups, online communities, and resources available to provide information, emotional support, and practical guidance for lung cancer patients and their loved ones. Our organization, Uhapo offers valuable resources and support to nurses, cancer patients, and survivors so that fighting against cancer becomes easier.