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Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs(ova) as well as hormones estrogen and progesterone. 

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of ovarian cancer is yet unknown, but there are several risk factors that may increase a woman’s chance of developing this type of cancer.

Here are some of the most common causes and risk factors of ovarian cancer:

  1. Age: The risk of developing ovarian cancer increases with age, and most cases occur in women over 50.
  2. Family history: Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer may have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
  3. Genetic mutations: Some inherited genetic mutations, such as those in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, are associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
  4. Reproductive history: Women who have never been pregnant, or who had their first child after the age of 35, may have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
  5. Hormone therapy: The use of hormone therapy after menopause has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
  6. Obesity: Women who are obese may have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Ovarian Cancer

7. Endometriosis: Women with endometriosis, a condition in which tissue from the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, may have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.

8. Smoking: Smoking has been linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Having one or more of these risk factors does not necessarily mean that a woman will develop ovarian cancer. Similarly, not having any of these risk factors does not guarantee that a woman will not develop ovarian cancer. Researchers have discovered several risk factors that can increase a woman’s chance of developing ovarian cancer.


Ovarian cancer can be difficult to detect in its early stages, and symptoms may not appear until cancer has spread to other parts of the body. However, here are some common symptoms that may be present:

  1. Abdominal bloating or swelling
  2. Pelvic pain or pressure
  3. Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly
  4. Urinary urgency or frequency
  5. Changes in bowel habits
  6. Unexplained weight loss or gain
  7. Fatigue
  8. Back pain
  9. Menstrual irregularities or abnormal bleeding
  10. Pain during sex

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, and having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have ovarian cancer. However, if you are experiencing any of these symptoms, especially if they are persistent or severe, you should consult with your healthcare provider to rule out any potential underlying health issues.

Diagnosis and Tests

If your healthcare provider suspects you may have ovarian cancer based on your symptoms or a physical exam, they will likely recommend some diagnostic tests to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Some common tests used in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer include –

  1. Pelvic exam: During a pelvic exam, your healthcare provider will feel for any lumps or abnormalities in your ovaries or uterus.
  2. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as an ultrasound, CT scan, PET scan, or MRI may be used to look for any tumors or abnormalities in the ovaries.
  3. Blood tests: Blood tests such as the CA-125 test may be used to measure the levels of a protein that is often elevated in women with ovarian cancer. However, it is not a proven method to determine the presence of cancer as the CA-125 levels may increase or decrease based on 
  4. Biopsy: A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the ovary or any suspicious areas for laboratory analysis to determine if cancer cells are present.
  5. Laparoscopy: In this procedure, a thin, lighted tube is inserted into the abdomen to view the ovaries and other organs and to remove tissue samples for testing.

The specific tests used will depend on a variety of factors, including your age, medical history, and the severity and nature of your symptoms. If you have any concerns about ovarian cancer or other gynecological issues, it’s important to discuss them with your healthcare provider.


Ovarian cancer staging is the process of determining the extent or spread of cancer within the body. The staging system commonly used for ovarian cancer is the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging system. This system is based on the extent of the tumor and whether it has spread beyond the ovaries.

The FIGO staging system for ovarian cancer is as follows-

Stage I: Cancer is confined to one or both ovaries.

Stage IA: Cancer has limited to one ovary and the tumor is inside the ovary.

Stage IB: Cancer is limited to one ovary and the tumor is on the surface of the ovary.

Stage IC: Cancer is present in both ovaries or cancer is present in one ovary and the tumor has ruptured or spilled into the pelvic cavity.

Stage II: Cancer has spread beyond the ovaries but is still within the pelvis.

Stage IIA: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes.

Stage IIB: Cancer has spread to other pelvic organs such as the bladder or rectum.

Stage III: Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis but is still within the abdomen.

Stage IIIA: Cancer is present in the abdomen and/or lymph nodes in the abdomen.

Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to the surface of the liver or spleen.

Stage IIIC: Cancer is present in the abdomen and lymph nodes in the abdomen and/or pelvis.

Stage IV: Cancer has spread beyond the abdomen to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or brain.

Determining the stage of ovarian cancer is important in determining the appropriate treatment plan and predicting the prognosis or likely outcome of the disease.


The treatment for ovarian cancer depends on the stage of cancer, the age and overall health of the patient, and other individual factors. The most common treatments for ovarian cancer include –

  1. Surgery: Surgery is usually the first step in the treatment of ovarian cancer. It involves the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, nearby lymph nodes, and any visible tumors. In some cases, a hysterectomy may be necessary.
  2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be used before or after surgery or as the primary treatment for advanced ovarian cancer.
  3. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is a newer type of cancer treatment that targets specific molecules in cancer cells to block their growth and spread. It may be used in combination with chemotherapy.
  4. Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy may be used in rare cases where the cancer cells have hormone receptors.
  5. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It may be used in combination with chemotherapy. It involves two types of surgeries –
  • External Beam Radiation – It is like getting an X-ray where a machine focuses on the area affected by cancer.
  • Internal Beam Radiation – It is also known as brachytherapy. This device containing radioactive seeds or pellets is placed inside the body near cancer. 

In addition to these treatments, there may be clinical trials available for patients with ovarian cancer. Clinical trials test new treatments and therapies to see if they are safe and effective. Patients can discuss these options with their doctors to determine the best course of treatment for their individual cases.


Ovarian cancer is a severe and potentially life-threatening disease that develops in the ovaries, which are the reproductive organs in females responsible for producing eggs. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women.

Currently, there is no definitive screening test for ovarian cancer, and the symptoms of the disease can be vague and easily mistaken for other conditions. Therefore, it is important for women to be aware of the risk factors for ovarian cancer and to seek medical attention if they experience any unusual symptoms, such as bloating, abdominal pain, or changes in bowel or bladder habits.

While the prognosis for ovarian cancer can be challenging, ongoing research is offering new hope for better treatments and improved survival rates. It is essential to continue raising awareness of this disease and supporting efforts to develop more effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment options.

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