Gynecologic Oncologist in Mumbai
Gynecologic cancer refers to a group of cancers that affect the female reproductive system. It is a type of cancer that originate in the cervix, uterus (womb), ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, and vulva. These cancers can arise from different types of cells within the reproductive organs and have distinct characteristics and treatment approaches.
Types of Gynecologic Cancers
The major types of gynecologic cancer include –
- Cervical cancer – Cervical cancer develops in the cells of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is most commonly caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV).
Key Signs of Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer does not show signs at early stages of cancer. It shows signs at advanced stages of cancer that may include vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge with a foul odor, pelvic pain, or discomfort during intercourse.
- Uterine (endometrial) cancer – Uterine cancer arises in the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium. It is the most common gynecologic cancer. Uterine cancer is often associated with hormonal imbalances, particularly excess estrogen.
Key Signs of Uterine Cancer
Postmenopausal bleeding or abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women are some of the signs of uterine cancer.
Gynecologic Oncologist in Mumbai
3. Ovarian cancer – Ovarian cancer originates in the ovaries, which are responsible for producing eggs and female hormones. Ovarian cancer is challenging to detect in its early stages, as symptoms are often nonspecific.
Key Signs of Ovarian Cancer
It includes bloating, abdominal or pelvic pain, difficulty eating, and urinary frequency.
4. Fallopian tube cancer – Fallopian tube cancer is a rare type of gynecologic cancer that starts in the fallopian tubes. It is often diagnosed incidentally during surgery or when investigating other gynecologic conditions.
Key Signs of Fallopian Tube Cancer
The symptoms can be similar to ovarian cancer that include abdominal pain and bloating.
5. Vaginal cancer – Vaginal cancer develops in the cells lining the vagina, the canal connecting the cervix to the outer genitals. It is relatively uncommon and typically occurs in older women.
Key Signs of Vaginal Cancer
The symptoms of vaginal cancer typically include bleeding from the vagina, smelly vaginal discharge, vaginal itching, or unbearable pain.
6. Vulvar cancer – Vulvar cancer affects the external genital area, specifically the vulva. It can develop in the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, or perineal area.
Key Signs of Vulvar Cancer
The symptoms may include itching, pain, changes in the appearance of the skin, and the presence of a lump or ulcer. Chronic inflammation, HPV infection, smoking, and certain skin conditions are among the risk factors for vulvar cancer.
Causes and Risk Factors
Several risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing gynecologic cancers. While having one or more of these risk factors does not guarantee the development of cancer, they can help identify individuals who may benefit from closer monitoring or preventive measures. The key risk factors for gynecologic cancer include –
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
- Family history of gynecologic cancers
- Personal history of gynecologic conditions
- Obesity or being overweight
- Prolonged exposure to estrogen without the balancing effect of progesterone
- Smoking and tobacco consumption
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure
- Individuals with weakened immune systems
Diagnosis and Tests
The diagnosis and tests needed to be performed are dependent on the stage, type, and location of the cancer. The gynecologic oncologist in Mumbai performs the following tests to determine the extent of gynecologic cancer including –
1. Pelvic examination – A physical examination of the pelvic region, including the external genitalia, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
2. Pap test (Pap smear) – This test involves collecting cells from the cervix to examine under a microscope. It can detect precancerous or cancerous changes in cervical cells.
3. HPV test – This test detects the presence of high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cells.
4. Transvaginal ultrasound – A type of ultrasound that uses a probe inserted into the vagina to obtain detailed images of the uterus, ovaries, and other pelvic structures. It can help evaluate the size, shape, and characteristics of tumors.
5. Endometrial biopsy – In this procedure, a sample of the tissue lining the uterus is collected for examination. It is usually performed when there are symptoms such as abnormal uterine bleeding or thickening of the endometrium.
6. Imaging tests – Various imaging modalities may be used to evaluate gynecologic cancers and assess the extent of the disease. These may include –
- Computed Tomography (CT) scan
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
7. Biopsy – A biopsy involves the removal of a sample of tissue for microscopic examination. Different biopsy techniques include –
- Cervical biopsy – A small sample of cervical tissue is taken during a colposcopy.
- Endometrial biopsy – A sample of the uterine lining is obtained using a small suction device or a thin, flexible tube inserted through the cervix.
- Ovarian or fallopian tube biopsy – It may be performed through minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopy) or open surgery (laparotomy).
The treatment of gynecologic cancer depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the individual patient’s health, and their treatment preferences. Treatment options may involve one or a combination of the following approaches –
1. Surgery – Surgery is a common treatment for gynecologic cancers and involves the removal of cancerous tumors and surrounding tissue. The extent of surgery depends on the type and stage of the cancer. Procedures may include –
- Hysterectomy – Removal of the uterus and cervix
- Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy – Removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes
- Lymph node dissection – Removal of nearby lymph nodes to assess for spread of cancer
- Debulking surgery – Removal of as much of the tumor as possible to reduce tumor burden
Radiation therapy – Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth. It can be delivered externally (external beam radiation) or internally (brachytherapy) using radioactive implants.
Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth throughout the body. It is usually administered intravenously but may also be given orally.
Targeted therapy – Targeted therapy uses drugs that specifically target certain molecular abnormalities in cancer cells. These drugs interfere with specific pathways involved in cancer growth and can be effective against certain types of gynecologic cancers.
Hormone therapy – Hormone therapy is used for gynecologic cancers that are hormone-sensitive, such as some types of endometrial or ovarian cancers. It involves the use of medications that either block the effects of hormones or reduce hormone production to slow down or shrink the tumor.
Immunotherapy – Immunotherapy is a treatment that helps the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. It is mainly used in certain types of gynecologic cancers, such as advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, where immune checkpoint inhibitors may be effective in boosting the immune response against the tumor.
Why Uhapo is the Best Healthcare Navigator to find Gynecologic Oncologists in Mumbai?
Uhapo is a social enterprise that provides access to the best medical team of highly-qualified cancer doctors and specialists to treat cancer with care. Our organization is equipped with a network of the Best Gynecologic Oncologist in Mumbai who are skilled in various diagnostic techniques that include physical examinations, biopsies, imaging tests (such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans), and laboratory analysis for accurately diagnosing gynecologic cancer among patients. Our Gynecologic Oncologists in Mumbai are expertized in determining the stage of cancer – which involves evaluating the extent of cancer spread for making treatment decisions and providing prognostic information about the likely course of the disease.
We can navigate you to the Best Gynecologic Oncologist in Mumbai – that are qualified to assess the individual needs of each patient by developing personalized treatment plans. They determine the overall factors of individual patients including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient’s overall health, and their treatment goals. The major treatment options considered by our top oncology doctors in gynecologic cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these modalities to cure the patients with the best treatment approaches.
FAQs regarding Gynecologic Oncologists in Mumbai
What is a gynecologic oncologist?
A: A gynecologic oncologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic cancers. These cancers include ovarian, uterine (endometrial), cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers.
When should I see a gynecologic oncologist?
A: You should consider seeing a gynecologic oncologist if you have been diagnosed with or are suspected to have gynecologic cancer. They are experts in the management of these specific cancers and can provide you with the most appropriate treatment options and personalized care.
What does the role of a gynecologic oncologist involve in cancer treatment?
A: The role of a gynecologic oncologist involves various aspects of cancer care. They perform thorough evaluations and diagnostic procedures to determine the extent and stage of the cancer. Gynecologic oncologists develop treatment plans tailored to the individual patient, which may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy.
What types of cancers do gynecologic oncologists treat?
A: Gynecologic oncologists primarily focus on the treatment of cancers affecting the female reproductive system, including ovarian, uterine, cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers.
Is surgery always required for gynecologic cancers?
A: Surgery is one of the main treatment options for many gynecologic cancers, but it is not always required for every patient. The necessity of surgery depends on factors such as the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health and preferences.
Can gynecologic oncologists provide non-surgical treatments?
A: Yes, gynecologic oncologists are skilled in providing various non-surgical treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. They will determine the most appropriate treatment based on the specific type and stage of the cancer and the patient’s overall health.
What is the importance of early detection of gynecologic cancers?
A: Early detection of gynecologic cancers is crucial for better treatment outcomes and improved survival rates. Regular gynecologic check-ups, screenings, and awareness of potential symptoms can aid in early diagnosis, allowing for timely intervention and more effective treatments.
Can gynecologic oncologists provide support for cancer survivors?
A: Yes, gynecologic oncologists provide support and follow-up care for cancer survivors. They monitor patients’ health and address any potential side effects or complications that may arise after treatment. Additionally, they may collaborate with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive survivorship care.
Can gynecologic oncologists participate in clinical trials?
A: Yes, gynecologic oncologists actively participate in clinical trials. Clinical trials are research studies that test new treatments or treatment combinations to advance cancer care and improve patient outcomes. They may offer eligible patients the opportunity to access innovative therapies not yet widely available.