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What are the short term and long term complications related with lung surgery ?

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Lung surgery, like any surgical procedure, can be associated with both short-term and long-term complications. It's important to note that the risks and complications can vary depending on the specific type of lung surgery, the underlying health of the patient, and other individual factors. Here are some general complications associated with lung surgery:

**Short-term Complications:**

1. **Pain:** Pain is a common short-term complication after surgery. It is usually managed with medications, but it can affect the patient's comfort and mobility in the immediate postoperative period.

2. **Infection:** Infections can occur at the surgical site or in the lungs. Prophylactic antibiotics are often administered before surgery to reduce the risk of infection.

3. **Bleeding:** There is a risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Surgeons take precautions to minimize bleeding, but sometimes additional procedures may be necessary to address excessive bleeding.

4. **Pneumonia:** Lung surgery can increase the risk of developing pneumonia, especially if the patient has pre-existing lung conditions or if they are unable to take deep breaths and cough effectively after surgery.

5. **Blood Clots:** Surgery and reduced mobility can increase the risk of blood clots forming, which can potentially lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

6. **Respiratory Complications:** Surgery can temporarily affect lung function, leading to respiratory complications such as atelectasis (partial lung collapse) or respiratory distress.

**Long-term Complications:**

1. **Chronic Pain:** Some patients may experience chronic pain at the surgical site, although this is not common.

2. **Changes in Lung Function:** Depending on the extent of surgery, there may be changes in lung function over the long term. This can vary from minimal impact to more significant changes, especially in cases of lung resection.

3. **Scarring:** Surgical procedures can result in scarring, both externally and internally. Excessive scarring (fibrosis) could affect lung function.

4. **Persistent Respiratory Issues:** In some cases, patients may experience persistent respiratory issues, such as shortness of breath or a reduced ability to exercise.

5. **Complications Related to Anesthesia:** While not specific to lung surgery, complications related to anesthesia can occur, including allergic reactions or long-term cognitive issues (though rare).

It's important for patients to discuss potential risks and complications with their healthcare team before undergoing lung surgery. The benefits of the surgery, including the potential improvement in lung function and quality of life, are typically weighed against the risks when making the decision to proceed with surgery. The specific details and risks associated with lung surgery will vary based on the individual patient and the nature of the surgery being performed.

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