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What is CAR-T Cell Therepy?

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(@rohini)
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What is CAR-T Cell Therepy?


   
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(@uhapoadmin)
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CAR-T cell therapy, or Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell therapy, is a groundbreaking form of immunotherapy used to treat certain types of cancer. This innovative approach involves reprogramming a patient's own T cells, a type of immune system cell, to better target and attack cancer cells.

Here's how CAR-T cell therapy generally works:

Collection of T Cells: A patient's T cells are extracted through a process called leukapheresis. This involves taking a blood sample from the patient and separating out the T cells.

Genetic Modification: The extracted T cells are then genetically modified in a laboratory. Scientists introduce a gene that encodes a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) into the T cells. This receptor is designed to recognize specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells.

Cell Expansion: The modified T cells, now expressing the CAR, are cultured and allowed to multiply in the laboratory. This process creates a large number of these engineered T cells.

Infusion: Once a sufficient number of CAR-T cells are produced, they are infused back into the patient. This infusion is a one-time treatment.

Targeting Cancer Cells: The CAR on the T cells enables them to recognize and attach to the specific cancer cells expressing the targeted protein. Once attached, the T cells become activated, leading to the destruction of the cancer cells.

CAR-T cell therapy has shown remarkable success in treating certain types of blood cancers, such as some forms of leukemia and lymphoma. It has been particularly effective in cases where traditional treatments, like chemotherapy or stem cell transplant, may not have been successful.

While CAR-T cell therapy represents a promising advancement in cancer treatment, it also comes with potential side effects, including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurological toxicities. Therefore, its use is carefully monitored, and patients are selected based on specific criteria. Researchers continue to explore and expand the applications of CAR-T cell therapy to other types of cancers.


   
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