The evaluation of breast cancer involves a comprehensive assessment to determine the extent of the disease, guide treatment decisions, and assess the overall health of the individual. The evaluation typically includes a combination of clinical, imaging, and laboratory tests. Here are key components of the evaluation of breast cancer:
Medical History and Physical Examination:
A detailed medical history, including family history of breast and other cancers, is obtained.
A thorough physical examination is conducted, including examination of the breasts, axillary lymph nodes, and other relevant areas.
Mammography: X-ray images of the breast are taken to detect abnormalities, such as masses or microcalcifications.
Breast Ultrasound: Sound waves are used to create images of the breast, particularly to evaluate masses detected on mammography or to assess breast lumps.
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This imaging technique uses magnetic fields to create detailed images of the breast, often used for further evaluation in specific situations.
Tissue samples are obtained from the suspicious area in the breast for pathological examination.
Different types of biopsies include core needle biopsy, fine-needle aspiration, or surgical biopsy.
The biopsy samples are examined by a pathologist to determine the type of breast cancer, its grade, hormone receptor status (ER, PR), and HER2 status.
Lymph Node Assessment:
Sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection is performed to assess the involvement of nearby lymph nodes.
Testing is done to determine if the cancer cells have receptors for hormones (ER and PR) and whether they overexpress the HER2 protein.
This information guides treatment decisions, including the use of hormone therapy and targeted therapies.
In some cases, genetic testing may be recommended, especially if there is a family history of breast cancer. This can identify mutations in genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2.
The stage of breast cancer is determined based on the size of the tumor, lymph node involvement, and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Staging helps guide treatment decisions and provides information about prognosis.
Additional Imaging (if needed):
Depending on the stage and characteristics of the cancer, additional imaging studies such as CT scans, bone scans, or PET scans may be recommended to assess the extent of metastasis.
The evaluation is conducted in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including oncologists, surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, and genetic counselors. The results of the evaluation are used to develop an individualized treatment plan tailored to the specific characteristics of the breast cancer and the overall health of the patient.