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What is a urinary diverison procedure ?

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How drastically is a person affected by such a procedure ?

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A urinary diversion procedure is a surgical technique used to reroute urine from the normal pathway because of a damaged or removed bladder. This procedure is commonly performed in cases of bladder cancer, birth defects, trauma, or other conditions that necessitate the removal or bypass of the bladder.

There are different types of urinary diversion procedures, and the choice depends on various factors including the patient's health, the reason for the procedure, and the surgeon's preference. The three main types of urinary diversion are:

1. **Ileal Conduit:** In this procedure, a small segment of the small intestine (ileum) is removed and used to create a conduit for urine to pass from the ureters to a stoma (an opening on the abdominal wall). A bag is then attached to the stoma to collect urine.

2. **Continent Urinary Reservoir (Indiana Pouch):** In this procedure, a reservoir is created from a section of the bowel, and a valve mechanism is used to allow the patient to catheterize and empty the reservoir at intervals. This type of diversion allows for more control over urine elimination and avoids the need for an external collection bag.

3. **Neobladder:** This procedure involves creating a new bladder using a segment of the small intestine. The neobladder is then connected to the urethra, allowing for a more natural way of voiding urine. Patients may need to learn to control the voiding process as they would with a natural bladder.

The choice of which urinary diversion procedure to use depends on factors such as the patient's overall health, the extent of the disease, and the surgeon's expertise. Each type has its own advantages and potential complications, and the decision is usually made through consultation between the patient and the medical team. After the surgery, patients typically require some time for recovery and may need to make adjustments to their lifestyle to accommodate the changes in urinary function.

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